Delving into the intriguing subject of shaping children’s sleep patterns and behaviour, it’s fascinating to see how early parenting styles, chosen when an infant is just six months old, can have significant implications for their sleep quality by the time they reach 18 months. This factor can subsequently influence their behavioural trajectories in early childhood, often causing tendencies towards aggression. These captivating insights were drawn from the notable study “Parental Influence and Reported Sleep Problems in Infancy as Precursors to Early Aggression and Inattention,” published in the respected journal, Sleep Health, in February 2022.
Cathi Propper, a leading research scientist at the UNC Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, spearheaded this study with a team of experts from Carolina, Brown University, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, and Boston University.
This research is among the pioneering studies probing the precursors and aftermath of sleep problems in children, ranging from 18 months to 7 years old. The team scrutinized maternal-reported sleep issues, child behavioural and cognitive outcomes in early childhood, and various caregiving predictors. For this, a longitudinal study was executed using a data set comprising 164 African American and white children, their mothers, and teachers.
The researchers analysed laboratory visits, assessments, and questionnaires from a community-based sample. They gauged parenting behaviours during free-play tasks with six-month-old infants. Furthermore, they explored maternal reports about child sleep problems at six distinct time points throughout the study, as well as teacher reports about the children’s aggression and attention levels in kindergarten and second grade.
Latent growth curve modelling exposed a decrease in sleep problems in children aged from 18 months to 7 years, as reported by their mothers. The modelling further revealed that harsh, intrusive parenting, characterized by high negativity levels from the mother during a play session at six months, predicted sleep problems at 18 months. Sleep problems at 18 months were found to foresee aggressive behaviours in kindergarten and second grade.
Propper is optimistic that these study findings will fortify the endeavours of psychologists, healthcare clinicians, and basic scientists. The research team also envisions their work contributing to informed policy-making and practices. The paramount importance of this research, however, lies in its implications for children and their caregivers.
“Sleep isn’t just essential to avoid grumpiness in children and parents due to inadequate sleep,” she explains. “Children’s brains develop significantly during sleep. Hence, understanding the long-term impact of sleep deprivation in young children is crucial for everyone involved in their upbringing, be it healthcare providers, teachers, or parents.”
The analysis further underlines that sleep can influence future behaviour, extending into the elementary school years. This research provides fresh evidence highlighting sleep’s significance in early life for honing critical classroom skills and supporting social-emotional and academic success. Despite a theoretical comprehension of sleep’s importance for psychological and physical health, longitudinal studies confirming this association are scant.
Studies such as this one, examining the long-term impact of poor sleep, can guide interventions and preventive measures to help families foster quality sleep for their children from infancy. It reinforces the idea that sleep quality is not only critical for day-to-day functioning but also contributes to brain development and subsequent behaviour from the earliest months of life. This could have lasting effects on social-emotional and academic success.